titan 1 esplosione

[43] Following the launch of the first missile the other two could reportedly be fired at ​7.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2-minute intervals. Missile SM-2 experienced early first stage shutdown; although the second stage burn was successful, it had to run to propellant depletion instead of a timed cutoff. The first two explosions occurred within 30 seconds of each other at the facility, which is located in the Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China. AVCO asked $500,000 for a three month study and mockup of the capsule device and estimated, as a rough guess", a total development cost of $100 million. The first successful launch and flight of an operational prototype Titan I occurred on 10 August 1960. United States Air Force, The T.O. When the 145th King inherited the Founding Titan, he abandone… Because Titan was a true backup, not intended for full-scale development and production unless Atlas would be significantly delayed, progress was slow until 1957. When the first stage had finished consuming its propellant, it dropped away, thereby decreasing the mass of the vehicle. These remained in service as America's heavy ICBM until the 1980's, whereas the solid-propellant Minuteman replaced the Atlas by 1965. In 1954, when development of the definite configuration of the SM-65 Atlas ICBM started, the USAF also awarded development contracts for alternative designs of many Atlas components, like engines, guidance system, and reentry vehicle. [18], The Titan I flight testing consisted of the first stage only Series I, the cancelled Series II, and Series III with the complete missile. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 41. The airframe contractor also would assemble the sub-systems provided by other Air Force contractors. (stg. The complexes were composed of an entry portal, control center, powerhouse, terminal room, two antenna silos for the ATHENA guidance radar antennas, and three launchers each composed of: three equipment terminals, three propellant terminals, and three missile silos. Around 1,820 years ago, Ymir Fritz obtained the Power of the Titans and became the first Titan, the Founding Titan. The Atlas used balloon tanks that had to be constantly pressurized, so Martin used a conventional airframe for the Titan. As a result of the ensuing recommendations, the USAF established the Western Development Division and Brigadier General Bernard Schriever was detailed to command it. Missiles were tested and launched at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station from Launch Complexes LC15, LC16, LC19 and LC20. A.O.T. After two previous failures, Titan missile J-7 was the first operational prototype to be launched and complete a successful flight test down the Atlantic Missile Range. Però, durant… These actions concluded the phase out of all Atlas and Titan I ICBMs in the SAC operational inventory. 6/93 from MCDD) Vertical (st 1 mate to SM-92 st 1), SM-101 61-4528 Estrella Warbirds Museum, Paso Robles, CA (2nd stage damaged) Horizontal, SM-?? (full missile) Spacetec CCAFS Horizontal, Green, Warren E., “The Development of The SM-68 Titan”, Historical Office Deputy Commander for Aerospace Systems, Air Force Systems Command, 1962, Lonnquest, John C and Winkler, David F., “To Defend and Deter: the Legacy of the Cold War Missile program,” U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, Champaign, IL Defense Publishing Service, Rock Island, IL,1996, Mc Murran, Marshall W, “Achieving Accuracy a Legacy of Computers and Missiles,” Xlibris Corporation, 2008, Rosenberg, Max, “The Air Force and The National Guided Missile Program 1944-1949,” USAF Historical Division Liaison Office, Ann Arbor, 1964. Sutton, George P., “History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, United States Air Force, “T.O. [9] At the time, this new organization was very controversial. There were then six Titan I Strategic Missile Squadrons of nine missile launchers each. George P. Sutton wrote "Aerojet's most successful set of large LPRE was that for the booster and sustainer stages of the versions of the Titan vehicle". Most are sealed today, with one in Colorado that is easily entered but also very unsafe. This was as a backup program, only to enter full scale development if the Atlas ICBM could not be successfully developed. The satellite would be a spherical capsule containing instrumentation and a life support system capable of sustaining one man for three or four days. Boost Propulsion: Liquid rocket, Lox/Kerosene. The guidance system and stage separation all performed well, and aerodynamic drag was lower than anticipated. Flyaway cost: $1,500,000 each, in 1962 dollars. The HGM-25A Titan I, built by the Martin Company, was the first version of the Titan family of rockets. In storage, SM-86 61-4513 Beale AFB (not on display, was horizontal, removed 1994) Horizontal, SM-89 61-4516 (st. 2) Pima Air Museum, outside DM AFB, Tucson, Arizona, now WPAFB Horizontal, SM-92 61-4519 (st. 1) Kansas Cosmosphere, Hutchinson, Kansas. The pad was not used again for six months. First, he recommended that an alternate propulsion system contractor be introduced into the Atlas program as a back-up. Between January and April 1965, all deployed Titan Is (54 missiles) were retired from service. In May 1955 the Air Material Command invited contractors to submit proposals and bids for the two stage Titan I ICBM, formally beginning the program. Divine, Robert A., The Sputnik Challenge, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Guidance input/output between the guidance radar and guidance computer occurred 10 times a second. These were: two Atlas E units, the 566th Strategic Missile Squadron (SMS) at Warren and the 548th SMS at Forbes AFB, Kansas; three Atlas F squadrons, the 577th SMS at Altus, the 578th SMS at Dyess, and the 579th SMS at Walker; and three Titan I squadrons, the 851st SMS at Beale, the 850th SMS at Ellsworth, and the 568th SMS at Larson AFB, Washington. 233–234. [89], Most of the ATHENA guidance computers were given to universities. (stg 1 mated to stg 1 above), SM-?? By January 1955, the size of nuclear weapons had been shrinking dramatically, allowing the possibility of building a bomb that could be carried by a missile of reasonable size. The second Titan I (HGM-25A) squadron at Lowry AFB, Colorado, the 725th Strategic Missile Squadron of SAC's 451st Strategic Missile Wing, became operational with the turnover of the last of three, three-missile launch complexes. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 24, Spirres, David 2012, On Alert An Operational History of the United States Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Program, 1945-2011, Air Force Space Command, United States Air Force, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2012, p. 97. The missile was released 3.9 seconds earlier than intended before it had built up sufficient thrust. The Titan performed well through the first stage burn, but after second stage separation, the fuel valve to the gas generator failed to open, preventing engine start. Originally designed as a backup in case the Air Force's SM-65 Atlas missile development ran into problems, the Titan was ultimately beaten into service by Atlas. Cleary, Mark, The 6555th Missile and Space Launches Through 1970, 45th Space Wing History Office, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, Chapter III Section 6. The Titan I was considered for use as the first missile to put a man in space. [61] I encompassed all of the equipment and even the bases for the Titan I strategic missile. United States Air Force, The T.O. Hoselton, Gary A., Titan I Guidance System, Brekenridge, Colorado: Association of Air Force Missileers, Volume 6, Number 1, March, 1998, p. 6. They were said to be no longer supportable from requirements, cost, or manpower use standpoints. A 4-4-2 monthly production rate was approved for Atlas, Titan, and Thor missiles, and program slippages were accepted in response to Secretary Wilson's guidance of 9 August. In the summer of 1957 budget cuts led Secretary of Defense Wilson to reduce the Titan production rate from the proposed seven per month to two a month, which left the Titan as a research and development program only. In October 1955 the USAF awarded Martin a contract for the Titan ICBM. The added stress of this operation apparently resulted in a failure of either the gas generator or turbopump, as the vernier solo phase ended prematurely. One is in the Smithsonian. (stg. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 95. When the storable-fueled Titan II and the solid-fueled Minuteman I were deployed in 1963, the Titan I and Atlas missiles became obsolete. Development problems (several XSM-68s exploded on the pad) delayed the first successful two-stage flight until January 1960. "[14] At the same time, others pushed for the cancellation of the Titan program almost from the beginning, arguing that it was redundant. As with the Atlas, the non-storable liquid fuels were a safety hazard and also lead to a reaction time from order to launch of about 20 minutes. [55] As North American Aviation's Rocketdyne Division was the only manufacturer of large liquid propellent rocket engines the Air Force Western Development Division decided to develop a second source for them. The pad was repaired in only two months. Imbracatura Titan a 1 punto, ancoraggio posteriore, dispositivo retrattile a nastro di 2,5 m e 2 moschettoni a ghiera 1011899 Kit di posizionamento per lavoro Titan The stage plummeted into the Atlantic Ocean some 30–40 miles downrange. This action returned the Titan program to its previous highest national priority status. Video jelentése. ), SM-?? Before each launch the guidance radar, which was periodically calibrated by acquiring a special target at a precisely known range and bearing,[78] had to acquire a radio on the missile (missile guidance set AN/DRW-18, AN/DRW-19, AN/DRW-20, AN/DRW-21, or AN/DRW-22). [1] The committee presented to the United States Air Force (USAF) their findings of the technical feasibility to develop weapons (bombs) and their delivery systems (intercontinental range ballistic missiles) that were completely invulnerable to "surprise" attack. Attack on Titan 1.rész. Ha guidato i Soldati scelti del Corpo di Guarnigione durante la missione per richiudere la Breccia nel Wall Rose. Citizens were evacuated from the area and 4 were effected from the … The Air Force was to act as "prime contractor," the Ramo-Woolridge Corporation was contracted to provide systems engineering and technical direction of all ballistic missiles. [19], A total of 62 flight test missiles were constructed in various numbers. Stumpf, David K., Titan II, p 276, The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 2000, Stumpf, David K., Titan II, p 277, The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 2000. Titan 1 J (Mk 4 RV). The Titan 1 was controlled by an autopilot which was informed of the missile's attitude by a rate gyro assembly consisting of 3 gyroscopes. Unfortunately, a broken hydraulic line caused the Titan's engines to gimbal hard left almost as soon as the tower was cleared. Simpson, Col. Charlie, LOX and RP-1 – Fire Waiting to Happen, Brekenridge, Colorado: Association of Air Force Missileers, Volume 14, Number 3 2006, p. 1. Though the SM-68A was operational for only three years, it spawned numerous follow-on models that were a part of the US arsenal and space launch capability. These were by far the most complex, extensive and expensive missile launch facilities ever deployed by the USAF. [53] Martin, in part, was selected as the contractor because it had "recognized the 'magnitude of the altitude start problem' for the second stage and had a good suggestion for solving it. Titan 1 ai prezzi più bassi del mercato Perchè pagare di più? The Western Development Division (WDD) and the Special Aircraft Project Office (SAPO) awarded a contract to Aerojet-General Corporation for development of liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon ICBM engines. Sheehan, Neil 2009, A Fiery Peace in a Cold War Bernard Schriever and the Ultimate Weapon, New York: Vintage Books, 2009, pp. 1 only) former Spaceport USA Rocket Garden, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. However, the Titan exploded almost as soon as it was released by the launcher mechanism. The first stage used two Aerojet LR87-AJ-1 engines, and the second stage consisted of a single Aerojet LR91-AJ-1, with all engines burning kerosene (RP-1) and liquid oxygen. Headquarters USAF directed that the Titan I ICBMs be retired from the operational inventory by 30 June 1965. The second stage was pressurized with nitrogen gas to 60-psi and did not contain any fuel or oxidizer. [28] The missile pitched over and flew onto a near-horizontal plane when Range Safety sent the destruct command at T+11 seconds. Titan IV. The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 17. [46] (The Atlas series was intended to be the first generation of American ICBMs and Titan II (as opposed to Titan I) was to be the second generation deployed). 66084. megosztás. When the much more advanced LGM-30 Minuteman and LGM-25C Titan II (see below) became operational in 1963, it was decided to phase out the Titan I (together with the Atlas) as quickly as possible. Of the missiles produced, 49 launched and two exploded: six A-types (four launched), seven B-types (two launched), six C-types (five launched), ten G-types (seven launched), 22 J-types (22 launched), four V-types (four launched), and seven M-types (seven launched). Gli ingredienti hanno un supporto scientifico. 21M-HGM25A-1-1 Technical Manual Operation and Organizational Maintenance HGM-25A Missile Weapon System, United States Air Force, 1964, paragraph 1-159 - 6-1 - 6-4. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara officially announced his decision to retire Atlas E,F, and Titan I ICBM weapon systems from the active operational inventory. Even though Titan complexes were designed to withstand nearby nuclear blasts antenna and missile extended for launch and guidance were quite susceptible to even a relatively distant miss. The second attempt at a Lot C Titan failed at T+52 seconds when the guidance compartment collapsed, causing the RVX-3 reentry vehicle to separate. In April 1962, the first squadron of SM-68 Titan I missiles was declared operational. This brought the Titan I operational force to its programmed strength of six radio-guidance squadrons and 54 silo-lift launchers. Maximum range: 11,300 km (7,000 mi). [56], The warhead of the Titan I was an AVCO Mk 4 re-entry vehicle containing a W38 thermonuclear bomb with a yield of 3.75 megatons which was fuzed for either air burst or contact burst. The cost of the Titan IVA-20 mishap is more than $1 billion. A dare il via al raid Project Titan alle 21:00 di questa sera ci penserà l'esplosione del vulcano, che potrà essere osservata da tutti i giocatori di Ghost Recon Breakpoint. The distance between the antenna silos and the most distant missile silo was between 1,000 and 1,300 feet (400 m). In its brief career, a total of six USAF squadrons were equipped with the Titan I missile. The first stage, besides including heavy fuel tanks and engines, also had launch interface equipment and the launch pad thrust ring with it. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 36. Hoselton, Gary A., Titan I Guidance System, Brekenridge, Colorado: Association of Air Force Missileers, Volume 6, Number 1, March 1998, p. 7. Rod era un uomo non molto alto, leggermente in sovrappeso con un viso rotondo, dai capelli neri, crespi e corti, e con un paio di baffi. Pinterest. Status: Retired 1965. 21M-HGM25A-1-1 Technical Manual Operation and Organizational Maintenance HGM-25A Missile Weapon System, United States Air Force, 1964, paragraph 1-173. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 128. Total Number Built: 155. Hoselton, Gary A., Titan I Guidance System, Brekenridge, Colorado: Association of Air Force Missileers, Volume 6, Number 1, March 1998, p. 5. Total production of the Titan I was about 160 missiles, of which more than 60 were launched for tests and training. 11/93 from MCDD) Vertical (st 1 mate to SM-94 st 1), SM-93 61-4520 (st. 2) SLC-10 Museum, Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc, Ca. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 94. [87] This accounts for the varied degree of salvage at the sites today. Second, he presented the results of the Atlas management study of 18 August and recommended Ramo-Wooldridge for the SE/TD role in the project. The Titan I program began on the recommendation of the Scientific Advisory Committee. [51] In case of the failure of the guidance system at one site, the guidance system at another site could be used to guide the missiles of the site with the failure. Martin took the alternate approach of a two-stage vehicle. Missile J-6 on 24 October set a record by flying 6100 miles. Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson directed that the ICBM program be limited to a maximum monthly production of four Atlas and two Titan missiles rather than the "4-4" program ordered on 9 August. In September 1955, The Martin Company was declared the contractor for the Titan missile. United States Air Force, The T.O. The Stage II engine, XLR-91-AJ-1, performed as planned, and the missile impacted almost exactly on target. It was a two-stage rocket operational from early 1962 to mid-1965 whose LR-87 booster engine was powered by RP-1 … General Schriever forwarded two important recommendations to Headquarters ARDC. 21M-HGM25A-1-1 Technical Manual Operation and Organizational Maintenance HGM-25A Missile Weapon System, United States Air Force, 1964, paragraph 1-159, On Alert An Operational History of the United States Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Program, 1945-2011, Spires, David, p 147, Air Force Space Command, United States Air Force, Colorado Springs, Colorado 2012, Stumpf, David K., Titan II, p 31, The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 2000. [70], These early complexes while safe from a nearby nuclear detonation, however, had certain drawbacks. Vertical (damaged by winds 7/94 ? The sleeve was not tight enough to hold the hydraulic line in place, and the pressure being imparted into it at liftoff was enough to pop it loose. Height: 31.00 m (101.00 ft). The contract covered design and fabrication of booster, sustainer, and vernier engines and was intended to provide an alternate propulsion system should the North American Aviation effort encounter delays. Two of the firms responding to an Air Force "Request for Proposal" for "Project 7969," an early USAF project to "Put a Man in Space Soonest (MISS)". 1960s Horizontal, SM-81 61-4508 Kansas Cosmosphere, Hutchinson, Kansas. [90][91], On 6 September 1985 Strategic Defense Initiative (AKA "Star Wars" program), a scrapped Titan I Second Stage was used in a Missile Defense test. Il complesso di lancio è stato utilizzata della US Air Force dal 1965 al 2005, per 55 lanci dei Titan III e Titan IV.Nel 2007 la US Air Force ha affittato il complesso a SpaceX per supportare i lanci del Falcon 9. "[54] Titan I's second-stage engines were reliable enough to be ignited at altitude, after separation from the first stage booster. Titan 1 J (Mk 4 RV) The program was later submitted to OSD/BMC and approved on 5 October 1957. The reduction in the mass of nuclear warheads allowed full coverage of the entire Sino-Soviet land mass, and the missile control capabilities were also upgraded. The last of the six operational Titan I squadrons, the 568th Strategic Missile Squadron at Larson AFB, Washington, was transferred to SAC. [85] By Spring 1966 a number of possible uses and users had been identified. Titan test missile B7A completed a 2,200-mile flight, achieving successful staging and ignition of the second stage engine at high altitude. These were the first of 54 Titan I launchers programmed for SAC's operational inventory. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 3. Clemmer, Wilbur E..1966, Phase-Out of the Atlas E and F and Titan I Weapon Systems, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Historical Research Division Air Force Logistics Command, 1962, p. 49. Atlas used a �semistage', which involved shutting down and jettisoning the booster engines in flight. (Teleborsa) - Apple potrebbe riuscire a lanciare la sua auto elettrica, dotata anche di guida autonoma, nel 2024. Natale, Coldiretti: 1,8 miliardi spesi dagli italiani a tavola, -31% sul 2019 Usa, scoppio Nashville: per Fbi attentatore morto nell'esplosione Dwayne Johnson salva il Natale di un fan Maximum speed: 29,030 kph (18,030 mph). The first stage was powered by two LR-87 rocket engines. [57], The production of operational missiles began during the final stages of the flight test program. In flight, a pair of the planned rocket motors would serve as boosters for the main Titan 4 rocket. The older liquid-fueled ICBMs were expensive to operate, required a large manpower commitment, were slow-reacting and thus vulnerable when compared to the more advanced Minuteman and Titan II missile that were being deployed. Simpson, Charles G, The Titan I part 2, Breckenridge, Colorado: Association of Air Force Missileers, October 1993, p. 5. One pad umbilical failed to detach at ignition, and an automatic shutoff signal terminated thrust before the missile could be released by the launcher mechanism. 21M-HGM25A-1-1, “Technical Manual, Operation and Organizational Maintenance USAF Model HGM-25A Missile Weapon System, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 06:43. [17] However, the Sputnik crisis, which started 5 October 1957, ended any talk of canceling Titan. L'ultimo Titan lanciato dalla rampa fu il Titan IV, a partire dal 8 marzo 1991, con il lancio di Lacrosse 2. [81][82], The final launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) occurred on 5 March 1965. First Launch: 1959-02-06. Titan’s Rage opere a garantire che il consumatore ottiene un cesellato e maschile fisico. Headquarters USAF presented its revised and augmented program for ballistic missile development to the Secretary of Defense and the Armed Forces Policy Council. Broken Arrow incident involving a Titan II Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). The first successful launch and flight of an operational prototype Titan I occurred on 10 August 1960. The launch pads at Cape Canaveral were quickly converted for the new vehicle. 1 only) Science Museum, Bayamon, Puerto Rico (top half from Bell's Junkyard) Vert. [2] The Titan was developed in parallel with the Atlas (SM-65/HGM-16) ICBM, serving as a backup with potentially greater capabilities and an incentive for the Atlas contractor to work harder. Horizontal (only stage 2), SM-94 61-4521 (st. 1) Kansas Cosmosphere, Hutchinson, Kansas. Gross mass: 105,142 kg (231,798 lb). There were then six Titan I Strategic Missile Squadrons of nine missile launchers each. Vert. The compromise project reformulation a week earlier led to this announcement by the Secretary of the Air Force. 3. Fifty-four missiles were in silos in total, with one missile as a spare on standby at each squadron, bringing to 60 in service at any one time. [71] The missiles sites of a squadron were placed at least 17 (usually 20 to 30) miles apart so that a single nuclear weapon could not take out two sites. Guidance Changes Made on Atlas, Titan, Aviation Week 28 July 1958, page 22, Titan Guidance Switch, Aviation Week 6 April 195, page 31, United States Air Force, The T.O. [60] There were 59 XSM-68 Titan Is manufactured I in 7 developmental lots. Clemmer, Wilbur E..1966, Phase-Out of the Atlas E and F and Titan I Weapon Systems, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Historical Research Division Air Force Logistics Command, 1962, p. 31. [8] In response, the Teapot Committee was tasked with evaluating requirements for ballistic missiles and methods of accelerating their development. Cryogenic liquid oxygen oxidizer had to be pumped aboard the missile just before launch, and complex equipment was required to store and move this liquid. (stg 1 mated to stg 1 above), SM-?? After the successful flight of Missile G-4 on 24 February, Missile C-1's second stage failed to ignite on 8 March due to a stuck valve preventing the gas generator from starting. 1 only) former Spaceport USA Rocket Garden, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Green, Warren E., The Development of the SM-68 Titan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base: Air Force Systems Command, 1962, AFSC Historical Publications Series 62-23-1, p. 54. This changed after the Soviet ICBM and Sputnik launches in 1957, at which point Titan received full funding with the objective of being deployed in parallel with Atlas in 1962. The Nine Titans soon destroyed the ancient nation of Marley and conquered the entire continent to build the Eldian Empire. There could be a number of electricians, plumbers, power production technicians, air conditioning technicians, and other specialist when maintenance was being performed. The Titan I was unique among the Titan models in that it used liquid oxygen and RP-1 as propellants. The last Titan I launch was from LC 395A silo A-2 in March 1965. The basic elements of the proposal included a Titan rocket to boost a manned satellite into a 110 nautical mile earth orbit. Essentially a Titan I with a Titan II inertial guidance system, M-l was only a partial success due to a second stage hydraulic failure and loss of control after sustainer engine ignition.

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