Philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre put Nietzsche in a high place in the history of philosophy. In March 1890, Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic and, in May 1890, brought him to her home in Naumburg. In 1887, Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morality.  This 1887 letter to Fritsch ended by: "And finally, how do you think I feel when the name Zarathustra is mouthed by anti-Semites? Studirao je klasičnu filologiju i kratko vreme radio kao profesor u Bazelu, ali je morao da se povuče zbog bolesti.  It is also known that Nietzsche frequented heterosexual brothels.  Arriving in Leipzig, (Germany) in October, Salomé and Rée separated from Nietzsche after a falling-out between Nietzsche and Salomé, in which Salomé believed that Nietzsche was desperately in love with her. " Just as "there is an order of rank between man and man", there is also an order of rank "between morality and morality. Jensen, Anthony K., and Helmut Heit, eds.  The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. Many of these criticisms rely on psychological diagnoses that expose false consciousness infecting people’s received ideas; for that reason, he is often associated with a group of late modern thinkers (including Marx and Freud) who advanced a “hermeneutics of suspicion" against traditional values.  Elisabeth had him buried beside his father at the church in Röcken Lützen. Nietzsche believed that Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value, belief in God (which justifies the evil in the world), and a basis for objective knowledge. In 1879, after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. To be "bad" was to be like the slaves over whom the aristocracy ruled: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—objects of pity or disgust rather than hatred. I teach you the overman. [26 August 1883] 1921. Declinazioni italiane della «morte di Dio». ", Nietzsche, Friedrich. Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the town of Röcken (now part of Lützen), near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. 1994. ' More often than not, self-conservation is a consequence of a creature's will to exert its strength on the outside world. , By World War I, Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism and leftist politics.  Wallace Stevens was another reader of Nietzsche, and elements of Nietzsche's philosophy were found throughout Stevens's poetry collection Harmonium. 115 letters 1874–1886 | Correspondences", "The lost 'Aryan utopia' of Nueva Germania", "Nietzsches Briefe. The 1868 riding accident and diseases in 1870 may have aggravated these persistent conditions, which continued to affect him through his years at Basel, forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. 1988. Una delle domande che ci si è posti nella storia della critica a Nietzsche è la considerazione su qual è il "vero" Nietzsche ovvero quale fosse il suo reale intento e cosa volesse comunicare nelle sue opere ovvero quanto di ciò che ha lasciato è filtrabile in maniera lucida separandolo dalla parabola discendente della sua malattia mentale. While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism, he was not antisemitic: in his work On the Genealogy of Morality, he explicitly condemned antisemitism and pointed out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on contemporary Jewish people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood who he claimed antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon. "I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman, without a single drop of bad blood, certainly not German blood. " He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900, he had another stroke during the night of 24–25 August and died at about noon on 25 August. Nietzsche admired both greatly and during his time at Basel frequently visited Wagner's house in Tribschen in Lucerne. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttrieben ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts or tragedies. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass. Filolog, filozof i pesnik. According to biographer R. J. Hollingdale, Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of his "campaign against Germany. Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in 1907, The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, and in 1910 a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. Likewise, he rejected the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces. " In December, Nietzsche began a correspondence with August Strindberg and thought that, short of an international breakthrough, he would attempt to buy back his older writings from the publisher and have them translated into other European languages.  This view has acquired the name perspectivism. Dalla nascita della tragedia all'eterno ritorno dell'uguale, in pochi minuti sarai in grado di apprendere la filosofia di questo autore ostico per certi aspetti.  Köhler also suggests Nietzsche may have had a romantic relationship, as well as a friendship, with Paul Rée. Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in 1865.  Michel Foucault commented that his own book Madness and Civilization should be read "under the sun of the great Nietzschean inquiry". The willingness is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy.  In January 1889, they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols, by that time already printed and bound. (For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist, where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible.) I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity.  Critics have suggested that the character of David Grief in A Son of the Sun was based on Nietzsche.  In his later work, he became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome cultural and moral mores in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. However, before fulfilling this promise, he slipped too far into illness. As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the supra sensory ground and goal of all reality is dead if the supra sensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric, blasphemous, and often drunken poet who was found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Richard Wagner. 1908. Huskinson, Lucy. Humanity still has no goal." Rivista di scienze della comunicazione e di argomentazione giuridica - A. XI (2019) n. 2", Trieste, EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2019, pp. Nietzsche's concept "God is dead" applies to the doctrines of Christendom, though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he complimented for fostering critical thought. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. , "Eternal return" (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a hypothetical concept that posits that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, for an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.  Consequently, he turned his attention to his studies again, completing them in 1868.  Poisoning by mercury, a treatment for syphilis at the time of Nietzsche's death, has also been suggested.  Gotard Nietzsche, a member of the Nicki family, left Poland for Prussia. ... All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? While in Genoa, Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. ", Concurring reports in Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's biography (1904) and a letter by Mathilde Schenk-Nietzsche to, "Letter to Heinrich von Stein, December 1882.". "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press, 2000). But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society, and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se. Additionally, he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany, that the pope should be put in jail and that he, Nietzsche, created the world and was in the process of having all anti-Semites shot dead. Friedrich Nietzsche, Alexandre Herzen (fils) und Charles Féré 1888. He likely suffered from clinical hemiparesis/hemiplegia on the left side of his body by 1899. He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. Moritz in Switzerland. Malwida von Meysenbug remained like a motherly patron even outside the Wagner circle. ", One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche called passive nihilism, which he recognized in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. ", Nietzsche never married. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind. Converted file can differ from the original. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides, that tragedy begins its Untergang (literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.). It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation, but the return of beings in the same bodies.  He condemned institutionalized Christianity for emphasizing a morality of pity (Mitleid), which assumes an inherent illness in society:, Christianity is called the religion of pity. In 1883, he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. On the basis of it, many commentators regard Nietzsche as an atheist; others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity.  Symons went on to compare the ideas of the two thinkers in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, while Yeats tried to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. Some maintain that Nietzsche contracted it in a male brothel in Genoa.  Nietzsche is known today as a precursor to existentialism, post-structuralism and postmodernism. ", Walter Kaufmann, intr. " Israel Eldad, the ideological chief of the Stern Gang that fought the British in Palestine in the 1940s, wrote about Nietzsche in his underground newspaper and later translated most of Nietzsche's books into Hebrew.  He called himself an "immoralist" and harshly criticized the prominent moral philosophies of his day: Christianity, Kantianism, and utilitarianism.  As such, according to Nietzsche, the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions, as the general condition of life is not one of a 'struggle for existence. In responding most enthusiastically to Also Sprach Zarathustra ('Thus Spoke Zarathustra'), Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary.  This leads to constant reassessment of rules (i.e., those of philosophy, the scientific method, etc.) Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner.  He also developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. "Anti-Statism in German Literature, as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay. După «Nietzsche-Lexicon» editat de Prof. Cristian Niemeyer (2009), cu participarea a 150 de cercetători specialiști în filozofia lui Nietzsche, sora sa, Elisabeth Forster a măsluit masiv și sistematic opera marelui filosof. , Nietzsche's 1870 projected doctoral thesis, "Contribution toward the Study and the Critique of the Sources of Diogenes Laertius" ("Beiträge zur Quellenkunde und Kritik des Laertius Diogenes"), examined the origins of the ideas of Diogenes Laërtius.  He subsequently transcribed and proofread the galleys for almost all of Nietzsche's work. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! ". Some have suggested that the eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. His descendants later settled in the Electorate of Saxony circa the year 1700. In the end, a past student of his, Heinrich Köselitz or Peter Gast, became a private secretary to Nietzsche. He proposed to Lou Salomé three times and each time was rejected. OAI identifier: oai:ricerca.sns.it:11384/3632 Provided by: Archivio istituzionale della Ricerca - … During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines and took liberties with the material, the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. Potendo accedere ai documenti conservati nel Nietzsche-Archiv, rielaborarono e pubblicarono leopere nietzscheane in funzione degli ideali antisemiti e nazionalisti che sempre più prendevano piede nella Germania di …  At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources; he also experienced for the first time being away from his family life in a small-town conservative environment. " At one point, Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish identity. In 1886, his sister Elisabeth married the antisemite Bernhard Förster and travelled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania, a "Germanic" colony—a plan Nietzsche responded to with mocking laughter. La particolarità del pensiero di Nietzsche, la sua unicità, ha sempre generato nella critica degli interrogativi. J.L. Most of them were signed "Dionysus", though some were also signed "der Gekreuzigte" meaning "the crucified one". Now, with the new style of Zarathustra, his work became even more alienating, and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect. By denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them. With the publication in 1878 of Human, All Too Human (a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion), a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear, highly influenced by Afrikan Spir's Thought and Reality and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer.  Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. " Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized, in one letter claiming, "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago, finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. 250-278), il saggio dello stesso Treiber, Il monastero di N ietzsche degli “spiriti liberi”. Only the fertile interplay of these two forces brought together as an art represented the best of Greek tragedy..  Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. Nietzsche wrote of the affair in 1883, that he now felt "genuine hatred for my sister"..  He also expressed deep appreciation for Stifter's Indian Summer, Byron's Manfred and Twain's Tom Sawyer. Preface by Gianni Vattimo, Rowman & Littlefield, London – New York, 2016, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 08:29. "Nietzsche and Jung: The whole self in the union of opposites" (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), Magnus and Higgins, "Nietzsche's works and their themes", in, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press) 1985. Rée proposed marriage to her, but she, instead, proposed that they should live and study together as "brother and sister", along with another man for company, where they would establish an academic commune.  Stimulated by this state, a person's artistic will is enhanced: In this state one enriches everything out of one's own fullness: whatever one sees, whatever wills is seen swelled, taut, strong, overloaded with strength. What have you done to overcome him? Oltre l'abisso. " According to Nietzsche, it is only when nihilism is overcome that a culture can have a true foundation on which to thrive. Richard Wagner was dismissive of Nietzsche's music, allegedly mocking a birthday gift of a piano composition sent by Nietzsche in 1871 to his wife Cosima.  To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth, strength, health, power, etc. , On 6 January 1889, Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in 1888 when he left Sils Maria. On at least one occasion, on 23 February 1880, the usually poor Gast received 200 marks from their mutual friend, Paul Rée. Hecker, Hellmuth. , Other scholars have argued that Köhler's sexuality-based interpretation is not helpful in understanding Nietzsche's philosophy.  Writing about nihilism in Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche introduced a value-creating Übermensch, not as a project, but as an anti-project, the absence of any project. Nietzsche. (Daybreak, 14) The diagnosis of syphilis has since been challenged and a diagnosis of "manic-depressive illness with periodic psychosis followed by vascular dementia" was put forward by Cybulska prior to Schain's study.  Author Jack London wrote that he was more stimulated by Nietzsche than by any other writer. Georges Bataille was also influential in this revival, defending Nietzsche against appropriation by the Nazis with his notable 1937 essay "Nietzsche and Fascists".  Nietzsche nonetheless was content to join together with Rée and Salomé touring through Switzerland and Italy together, planning their commune. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.  For the audience of such drama, this tragedy allows them to sense what Nietzsche called the Primordial Unity, which revives Dionysian nature. She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Capirai cos'è la trasvalutazione dei valori, la morte di Dio, il nichilismo attivo e passivo, l'oltreuomo, la volontà di potenza e l'eterno ritorno dell'uguale. , W.B. During the same year, he encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, to whom he felt an immediate kinship. Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism found in the so-called wisdom of Silenus. That loss of strength in which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm. In his short time in the military, he experienced much and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle. , Nietzsche composed several works for voice, piano, and violin beginning in 1858 at the Schulpforta in Naumburg when he started to work on musical compositions. ", Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view of modern society and culture. Так говорил Заратустра (с репродукциями картин Л. Хейдиз из цикла "Так говорил Заратустра" )", "Postomodern considerations of Nietzschean perspectivism", "Jung's Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche: A Roadmap for the Uninitiated by Dr. Ritske Rensma", Public Opinions, Private Laziness: The Epistemological Break in Nietzsche, https://web.archive.org/web/20140924114053/http://www.ehumanista.ucsb.edu/eHumanista%20IVITRA/Volume%205/Volum%20Regular/7_Perez.pdf, "In defence of slavery: Nietzsche's Dangerous Thinking", Entry on Nietzsche at the Encyclopædia Britannica, Publications by and about Friedrich Nietzsche, "Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy", Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works and Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate, Lexido: Searchable Database index of Public Domain editions of all Nietzsche's major works, International Music Score Library Project, Prof. Nietzsche and the Crisis in Philosophy, Biographical Archive of Psychiatry (BIAPSY), Newspaper clippings about Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche and the Postmodern Condition (1991), Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Nietzsche&oldid=998418810, German military personnel of the Franco-Prussian War, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with incomplete citations from November 2012, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "My life will recur in exactly identical fashion:" this expresses a totally, "My life may recur in exactly identical fashion:" This second view conditionally asserts. His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations.  He indicated his desire to bring about a new, more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself.  Furthermore, he emphasized the danger of nihilism and the possibilities it offers, as seen in his statement that "I praise, I do not reproach, [nihilism's] arrival. "Nietzsche's Quarrel With Euripides". He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate ("habilitation"). To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati, "love of fate". Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things and any coherent sense of objective truth. "Nietzsche, Decadence, and Regeneration in France, 1891–1895.". J.N. IRIS è la soluzione IT che facilita la raccolta e la gestione dei dati relativi alle attività e ai prodotti della ricerca. General commentators and Nietzsche scholars, whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language, overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher. He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity. This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made. " Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future).. ", Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements, Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Homer_and_Classical_Philology, "Shakespeare Contra Nietzsche by Andrew Lanham", "Der Philosoph Philipp Mainländer entdeckt das Nirwanaprinzip: Die Welt als Gottes Selbstmordprojekt", "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence", 'Madness' of Nietzsche was cancer not syphilis, Metaphors in and for the Sociology of Religion: Towards a Theory after Nietzsche, The Duality of Nietzsche's Theory of the Will to Power: The Psychological and Cosmological Aspects, "100 years after death, Nietzsche's popularity keeps growing", "Nietzsche's aesthetic critique of Darwin", "Ernst Schmeitzner (1851–1895). "Nietzsche's Reading and Private Library, 1885–1889".  Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century, most notable being Ahad Ha'am, Hillel Zeitlin, Micha Josef Berdyczewski, A.D. Gordon and Martin Buber, who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". , Despite his offer coming at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science, he accepted. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth (Nietzsche later dropped his middle name Wilhelm). , Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant, Descartes, and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche attacked the thing in itself and cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies.