Era il terzogenito di una famiglia numerosa (cinque maschi e sei femmine), e non molto fortunata economicamente, giacché il padre, Piero, di larga cultura e di vivi interessi letterarî e filosofici, non era uomo dai grandi guadagni. In the same year, he began to write his family memoirs and his Storie fiorentine (History of Florence) from 1378 to 1509. Che cos'è l'obiettivo del "particulare" secondo Guicciardini? Between 1528 and 1530 Guicciardini worked on his second history of Florence and compiled the most concise and varied expression of his views on society and politics in his collection of maxims and observations, the Ricordi. , This final Florentine Republic did not last long, however, and after enduring the Siege of Florence by imperial troops for nine months, in 1530 the city capitulated. I. Francesco Guicciardini, (born March 6, 1483, Florence—died May 22, 1540, Santa Margherita a Montici, near Florence), Florentine statesman, diplomat, and historian, author of the most important contemporary history of Italy, Storia d’Italia. In 1513 Cardinal Giovanni de’ Medici became Pope Leo X; in 1516 he appointed Guicciardini governor of Modena and in 1517 also of Reggio. In 1508, he married Maria Salviati, the daughter of Alamanno Salviati, cementing an oligarchical alliance with the powerful Florentine family. Francesco Guicciardini, (born March 6, 1483, Florence—died May 22, 1540, Santa Margherita a Montici, near Florence), Florentine statesman, diplomat, and historian, author of the most important contemporary history of Italy, Storia d’Italia. After the murder of Alessandro in 1537, he helped secure the succession for Cosimo, probably hoping to limit the ducal powers which he considered excessive. On his return to Florence in 1514, he resumed his legal practice; in 1514 he was a member of the Otto di Balìa, who were in charge of internal security, and in 1515 of the Signoria, the highest magistracy. Sidney Alexander, Introduction to Francesco Guicciardini, Felix Gilbert, Machiavelli and Guicciardini, p. 283, University Library in Bratislava Digital Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Francesco_Guicciardini&oldid=996609842, 15th-century people of the Republic of Florence, 16th-century people of the Republic of Florence, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2019, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, There is also a series of short essays, entitled, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 17:05. …realist (or pessimist) than Machiavelli. Guicciardini retired to his villa in Arcetri, where he spent his last years working on the Storia d'Italia. After the election of Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici as Clement VII, Guicciardini earned his reward by being appointed, in 1524, president of the Romagna, the northernmost papal province. In 1531 Clement appointed him governor of Bologna, but he lost this post after the accession of Paul III in 1534. In his research, Guicciardini drew upon material that he gathered from government records as well as from his own extensive experience in politics. The death of an uncle, who had occupied the see of Cortona, induced the young Guicciardini to seek an ecclesiastical career. Emeritus Professor of History, Westfield College, University of London. Guicciardini was on a somewhat higher social standing than his friend, but through their letters, a relaxed, comfortable relationship between the two emerges. These are some of his works recovered from the archives: Taken in combination with Machiavelli's treatises, the Opere inedite offer a comprehensive body of Italian political philosophy before Paolo Sarpi. Under the new regime, his embassy in Spain dragged on, frustrating Guicciardini as he yearned to return to Florence and participate in its political life. The victory of the intransigent republican faction in Florence and the fall of the gonfalonier Niccolò Capponi, who had been trying to come to terms with the pope (April 1529), followed by the advance of the imperial army on the city, endangered Guicciardini’s position, and in September 1529 he left Florentine territory for the papal court. His severe and sometimes ruthless measures were effective in restoring order but also caused him unpopularity. avv. In 1508 he married Maria, daughter of Alamanno Salviati. 171, on the tyrant; the whole, Francesco Guicciardini, Maxims and Reflections (Ricordi), Mario Domandi, trans., Introd. Guicciardini was critical of some of the ideas expressed by Machiavelli in his Discourses on Livy, "Guicciardini's principal objection to the theories which Machiavelli advanced in the Discourses was that Machiavelli put things 'too absolutely.' Because of his close ties to the Medici, Guicciardini was held suspect in his native city. The danger in which Florence found itself as a result of Clement’s policy had increased the opposition to the Medici regime. These high offices rendered Guicciardini the virtual master of the Papal States beyond the Apennine Mountains. LA RELIGIONE GUICCIARDINI MACHIAVELLI Alunni: Cozzolino Luisa Di Monda Angela Miranda Morgana Vegliante Antonio Fenomeno politico-sociale, di cui sottolinea la valenza positiva di quella pagana rispetto al Cristianesimo. Per prima cosa, Niccolò Machiavelli e Francesco Guicciardini sono due figure esemplari del Rinascimento italiano. Prime Winkel-wagen. A nessuno più che a me ripugnano l’ambizione, l’avarizia e il lusso del clero – afferma Guicciardini – e per questo, non certo per motivi religiosi, sarei divenuto seguace di … med. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.  "He governed Modena and Reggio with conspicuous success" according to The Catholic Encyclopedia. This was the beginning of a long career for Guicciardini in papal administration, first under Leo X and then under his successor, Clement VII. In the critical situation after the Battle of Pavia, when the army of Charles V was preparing to advance south, Guicciardini conveyed to the pope much advice, and in January 1526 he was called to Rome. Guicciardini did not agree with Machiavelli's basic assumption that Rome could serve as a perfect norm. by Nicolai Rubinstein, (New York, Harper & Row, 1965) p.144. As Gilbert writes: "The History of Italy stands apart from all his writings because it was the one work which he wrote not for himself, but for the public.". [full citation needed] Guicciardini resigned after Clement's death in 1534 and returned to Florence, where he was enlisted as advisor to Alessandro de Medici, “whose position as duke had become less secure following the death of the pope”. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francesco-Guicciardini, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Francesco Guicciardini, Guicciardini, Francesco - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). However, in April 1527, Guicciardini succeeded in averting an attack on Florence from a rebellious imperial army, which turned toward Rome instead. A friend and critic of Niccolò Machiavelli, he is considered one of the major political writers of the Italian Renaissance. Vystudoval práva na univerzitách ve Florencii a Ferraře; poté se věnoval právní praxi.Později působil jako diplomat; ve Florencii zastával významné úřady a byl rovněž ve službách několika papežů. Courses Taught. Like his father, Francesco received a fine humanist education and studied the classics, learning both Latin and a little Greek. However, Francesco's father convinced him of the court’s prestige and the honour of having been chosen at so young an age. La vita e le opere.  Guicciardini eventually returned home to Florence, where he took up his law practice again; in 1514, he served as a member of the Otto di Balìa, who controlled internal security, and in 1515, he served on the Signoria, the highest Florentine magistracy. In March 1530, as a result of his service to the Medici, Guicciardini was declared a rebel and had his property confiscated. He began the work probably in 1536; the final revision was not completed when he died. ), Op. Bruno Munari (Milanu, 24 de santuaine 1907 – Milanu, 30 de cabidanni 1998) est istadu unu designer italianu.Est istadu unu de sos massimos protagonistas de s'arte, de i … As hostilities between King Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, escalated, the Pope remained undecided over which side to back and so sought Guicciardini's advice. In 1531, Guicciardini was assigned the governorship of Bologna, the most important city in the northern Papal States by Clement VII. Indeed, without such supports, republics can hardly last.". ", In 1523, he was appointed viceregent of the Romagna by Clement VII (1478-1534). I Ricordi, pubblicati per la prima volta nel 1576, sono una raccolta di 403 pensieri, o consigli, scritti da Francesco Guicciardini e destinati ai membri della propria famiglia. The latter constitutes one of the major sources for the history of the republican regime after 1494 and reveals Guicciardini’s gifts for historical analysis and narrative. He had doubts about accepting the position because it came with so little profit and would disrupt his law practice and take him away from the city. In that year, his descendants opened the Guicciardini family archives and committed to Giuseppe Canestrini the publication of his memoirs in ten volumes. Account en lijsten Account Retourzendingen en bestellingen. LAntimachiavelli Guicciardini e Machiavelli In Machiavelli si avverte, pur sullo sfondo di una visione pessimistica, lentusiasmo di un pensiero che crede nel controllo razionale della realt In Guicciardini, di poco pi giovane e testimone del crollo definitivo della situazione italiana, prevale il senso dello scacco, dellimpossibilit di dominare gli eventi. Ga naar primaire content.nl. I Guicciardini e le scienze occulte: Loroscopo di Francesco Guicciardini, lettere di alchimia, astrologia e cabala a Luigi Guicciardini (Studi e testi / Istituto nazionale di studi sul Rinascimento) [francesco-guicciardini-lodovico-guicciardini-raffaella-castagnola] on Amazon.com. Il favorimento dei propri interessi, ottenuti sopraffacendo i più deboli e alleandosi con i più forti. In his masterpiece, The History of Italy, Guicciardini paved the way for a new style in historiography with his use of government sources to support arguments and the realistic analysis of the people and events of his time. Boeken. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.  Guiccardini defended him in Naples in 1535 before Charles V, contesting the exiled rebels' accusations of tyranny. A friend and critic of Niccolò Machiavelli, he is considered one of the major political writers of the Italian Renaissance. However, he also distrusted the calculated gestures of Ferdinand and referred to him as a model of the art of political deceit. La Storia d'Italia di Francesco Guicciardini; opera scritta tra il 1537 e il 1540 - nel periodo finale della rinascita italiana - e da subito riconosciuta come un capolavoro storiografico di … Author of The Government of Florence Under the Medici, 1434–1494, and others. - Duration: 24:07. During this time, Guicciardini became also a prolific political writer, composing numerous memorandums and treatises, mostly in the form of discourses on political problems of the day, often in connection with his official duties. Guicciardini supported Cosimo as duke of Florence; nevertheless, Cosimo dismissed him shortly after rising to power. For the 19th-century Italian cabinet member, see, Guicciardini and Machiavelli on politics and history. Guicciardini, Lodovico. His Spanish correspondence with the Signoria[full citation needed] reveals his power of observation and analysis, a chief quality of his mind. When, on the arrival of the duke of Urbino with his army near Florence, the Medici left the city to welcome him (April 26, 1527), a revolt broke out. Until 1534 Guicciardini served the papacy almost continuously. In his letters back home, he expressed appreciation for being able to observe Spanish military methods and estimate their strength during the time of war.  Thus Guicciardini started his career as a diplomat and statesman. They discussed personal matters and political ideas and influenced each other's work. Il particulare, cioè la cura della propria posizione sociale e della dignità personale, sono il punto d’arrivo della discrezione e dell’ e sperienza. Guicciardini was friends with Niccolò Machiavelli; the two maintained a lively correspondence until the latter's death in 1527. Having distinguished himself in the practice of law, Guicciardini was entrusted by the Florentine Signoria with an embassy to the court of the King of Aragon, Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1512. [full citation needed], Piero Guicciardini had studied with the philosopher Marsilio Ficino, who stood as his son's godfather. The first English "translation" by Sir Geffray Fenton was published in 1579. Luigi Gaudio 3,549 views. in particolare, in ... Francesco di Piero di Iacopo Guicciardini e di Simona di Buongianni Gianfigliazzi nacque a Firenze il 6 marzo 1483. [full citation needed] Guicciardini was still able to reconcile his republican ideals and his support of the Medici: "The equality of men under a popular government is by no means contradicted if one citizen enjoys greater reputation than another, provided it proceed from the love and reverence of all, and can be withheld by the people at their pleasure. Raccolta di 100 frasi di Francesco Guicciardini selezionate da noi. Guicciardini, who had arrived shortly before to help protect the city, succeeded in preventing the duke from assaulting the palace of the Signoria by negotiating a free pardon in return for surrender. Not any individual, be it noted, but those in positions of command: emperors, princes and popes who may be counted on to act always in terms of their self-interest—the famous Guicciardinian particolare.” In the following excerpt, the historian records his observations on the character of Pope Clement VII: “And although he had a most capable intelligence and marvelous knowledge of world affairs, yet he lacked the corresponding resolution and execution. In his capacity as commissioner general, he prevented, by his courage and determination, Parma from falling into French hands in December 1521. Francesco Guicciardini was born 6 March 1483 in Florence, now in Italy; he was the third of eleven children of Piero di Iacopo Guicciardini and Simona di Bongianni Gianfigliazzi. Il Guicciardini teorizza l'uomo della decadenza, uomo rinunciatario, uomo che si chiude nella propria dimensione privata. See Article History. ... Socrate: le fonti, il conosci te stesso e la gara di bellezza. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). í ï õ ,o sduwlfxoduh gdl 5lfrugl )udqfhvfr *xlfflduglql >«@ Ê judqgh huuruh sduoduh ghooh frvh gho prqgr lqglvwlqwdphqwh h dvvroxwdphqwh h shu gluh frvu shu uhjrod shufkp txdvl wxwwh The political turmoil in Italy was continuously intensifying. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Guicciardini insisted on being recalled and even sent a letter to the youthful Lorenzo de’ Medici in an attempt to secure a position in the new ruling group. (pagina 3) As governor of an exposed and recently acquired part of the Papal States, in which he had to face internal disorders as well as external dangers, Guicciardini showed outstanding administrative gifts. Francesco de Sanctis ha scritto un saggio "L’uomo del Guicciardini" in cui descrive il prototipo dell’italiano, in senso negativo, cioè debole moralmente, una malapianta abituata a curare esclusivamente sè stessa, legata solamente al suo “particulare” (che Guicciardini teorizza).  Benedetto Varchi claimed that in carrying out his task, "Messer Francesco Guicciardini was more cruel and more ferocious than the others".. Guicciardini advised an alliance with France and urged Clement to conclude the League of Cognac in 1526, which led to war with Charles V. Later that year, as the forces of Charles V threatened to attack, Clement made Guicciardini lieutenant-general of the papal army. But the death of Leo X in the same month jeopardized his career temporarily; after the election of Pope Adrian VI, he was at first deprived of the governorships of Modena and Reggio but recovered them at the end of 1522. Under the command of Clement VII, Guicciardini was assigned the task of punishing the Florentine citizens for their resistance to the Medici, and he dealt out justice mercilessly to those who had opposed the will of the Pope. His nephew, Lodovico Guicciardini, was also a historian known for his 16th-century works on the Low Countries. In 1523, after Adrian’s death, he had to defend both cities against their original ruler, the duke of Ferrara. Corrections? The failure of the league to prevent the imperial army under the duke of Bourbon from advancing on Florence and Rome involved him once more in the fate of his native city. "Ma il Guicciardini più grande è quello che scuote da sé il 'particulare', la diplomazia, il senso del limite per affisarsi con sguardo incommosso sui grandi temi dell'esistenza, ormai "pervenuto a rendersi conto del complesso gioco delle vicende e delle passioni umane" (Fubini). Discendente di una delle più importanti famiglie fiorentine, ricevette una solida formazione umanistica. GUICCIARDINI, Francesco. The outbreak of the war in northern Italy between King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, with whom Leo had concluded an alliance, turned Reggio into a military outpost of the Papal States, and in July 1521 Guicciardini was appointed commissioner general of the papal army. Seconda lezione su Francesco Guicciardini (1483 - 1540): lettura e commento di alcuni brani tratti dai Ricordi. Guicciardini was powerless to influence the commander of papal forces, Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, to take action. La polemica contro la corruzione ecclesiastica si riallaccia a una lunga tradizione nella letteratura italiana, anche se in Guicciardini il tema si arricchisce della sua particolare attenzione alla Riforma luterana, che lui abbraccerebbe se non contrastasse col fatto che è stato ed è consigliere di papi (deve quindi accettare la situazione per amore del suo "particulare", dei suoi interessi).
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